Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides and encodes the sequence of the amino acid residues in proteins using the genetic code, a triplet code of nucleotides.
RNA is a class of nucleic acids characterized by the presence of the sugar ribose and the organic base uracil. By contrast, DNA contains deoxyribose and thymine, respectively. Most RNA molecules, including messenger RNA and transfer RNA, act as cellular intermediaries; that is, they convert the genetic information stored in DNA into the proteins that provide cells with structure and enable them to carry out metabolism. In some viruses, RNA also serves as the hereditary material.
Biologists believe that RNA evolved on Earth before DNA. However, a major debate is in progress about the sequence of events leading to the first cellular life-forms, and, in particular, about which came first, RNA or proteins.
DNA is often referred to as the molecule of heredity as it is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits. In humans, these traits can range from hair colour to disease susceptibility. During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction. Lineage studies can be done based on the facts that the mitochondrial DNA only comes from the mother, and the male Y chromosome only comes from the father.
Every person’s DNA, their genome, is inherited from both parents. The mother’s mitochondrial DNA together with twenty-three chromosomes from each parent combine to form the genome of a zygote, the fertilized egg. As a result, with certain exceptions such as red blood cells, most human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, together with mitochondrial DNA inherited from the mother.
Five nucleic acid bases make up the information code of life. Both DNA and RNA share three of the bases -adenine, guanine, and cytosine. In DNA, the fourth base is thymine, whereas in RNA it is uracil. In DNA, each base combines with a five carbon sugar called deoxyribose, hence the term DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. In RNA, each base combines with the five-carbon sugar ribose, thus RNA stands for ribonucleic acid.
The information code in DNA in the cell nucleus is transcribed to RNA, which is then translated to all the enzymes and proteins made in the body. The DNA to RNA to protein translation mechanism makes possible the vast diversity of life on earth.
When DNA and RNA are ingested intact, they are intensely metabolized by intestinal bacteria and the intestinal lining. Over 95% of the pyrimidines bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil are degraded by the intestinal lining before reaching the blood stream. Only about 3% of the pyrimidines make it to the liver for further use in the body. The fate of the purine bases adenine and guanine is even more extreme. Over 99% of the purines are broken down to uric acid before being absorbed into the bloodstream. Therefore only a tiny fraction of ingested DNA or RNA becomes available for the numerous functions required of them throughout all the cells of the body.
In addition to ingested DNA and RNA elements, the body can make DNA and RNA bases from simpler nutrients in the diet. In particular, the amino acids glycine, glutamine, serine, and aspartic acid, along with vitamin cofactors are used to make DNA and RNA bases from scratch.
In order to make nucleic acids from simpler substances requires having all of the precursors and cofactors in adequate amounts at the time of production. In addition, it requires having sufficient amounts of numerous enzymes in the correct proportions and locations in the cell.
Recent evidence indicates that the body is often not able to make enough DNA and RNA to protect, repair, and regenerate cells to their optimum function. This is especially true for cells that have high turnover rates such as the intestinal lining that may fully replace itself every week.
The demand for production may particularly exceed synthetic capacity under conditions of stress in which the demand for greater cell activity and function becomes acute, particularly for the dynamic populations of cells in the immune system.
When demand exceeds production capacity, DNA and RNA base components become essential nutrients for protecting and preserving health. Numerous lines of evidence have been presented to show the far reaching health benefits of supplementing DNA and RNA during health stresses and even for general well being and longevity.
RNA/DNA Contained in Cryptomonadales (Chlorella Sorokiniana)
The sun-powered supernutrient and its beneficial properties
Cryptomonadales (Chlorella Sorokiniana) is extremely high in both RNA and DNA which performs functions in building the human cell that we are only beginning to understand. It is many times higher in RNA and DNA than sardines, which are considered to have one of the highest contents. Without RNA and DNA, the human cell cannot be properly formed, nor can it divide properly. This means that when sufficient amounts of RNA and DNA are not present in the cell Chlorella is also high in RNA and DNA.
“Dr Benjamin Frank believed that the loss of energy and physical deterioration associated with aging was due to the increasing breakdown of nucleic factors (DNA/RNA) which are needed to keep the cells healthy. He put his patients on a diet rich in RNA and DNA foods…such as canned or fresh sardines, salmon or other sea foods, wheat germ and green leafy vegetables. Canned sardines are thought to be among the highest sources of RNA at 590mg per 100 grams. Since he published his research it has been determined that Chlorella has several times the nucleic content of sardianes”.
TO UNDERSTAND IT, You Must First Understand Your Cells
The Human Cell And Why They Mean More To You Than You Think
First observed under a home-made microscope in the seventeenth century by an English scientist, Robert Hook, men have since then known a lot more about the human body cell. Today, textbooks will refer to the cell as the most basic unit of living matter that can exist independently and more importantly, its ability to self-replicate.
There are countless types of cells in all shapes and functional abilities; and in the human body, there are trillions of cells functioning at any one time. Even as a single strand of hair drops and microscopic flakes of skin are wiped off, new cells are continuously replicating to replace themselves.
The typical cell is made up of cytoplasm and a nuclei that is protected by a cell membrane (animal or cell wall (plant). The other common way of differentiating plant and animal cells is by the presence of chloroplast in plant cells.
“Expressed” according to a complex set of directions embedded in the DNA sequence, the products of expression are proteins that do essentially all the work of cell: they build cellular structures, digest nutrients, execute other metabolic functions, and mediate much of the information flow within a cell and among cellular communities. To accomplish these tasks, proteins typically work together with other proteins or nucleic acid as multi-component “molecular machines” – structures that fit together and function in highly specific, lock-and-key ways.
Each cell generally has a limited lifespan in terms of weeks, depending on its function and condition: and spends this time gathering the energy and nutrients to replace itself several times before dying. For example, it takes the skin cell about a month to work itself through the various layers before emerging on the epithelium, before a brush with a rough surface dislodges it from the surface of our skin. When you consider the trillions of cells in the body, it becomes obvious that the body needs to continuously find the energy and nutrients to replace every cell efficiently.
Only a healthy and/or youthful body automatically sustains this unstopping cell replacement sequence efficiently. However, this replication process is disturbed or stopped eventually. When this happens, the result is commonly referred to as a symptom of sickness and/or aging.
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